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The Minerals of New York City, Page 4


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Titanite

The earliest mention of titanite crystals from NYC was in the Inwood marble quarries in the Kingsbridge section of upper Manhattan (Bruce, 1814a). Hundreds of titanite crystals were found by Niven and others in Fort George, a high ridge on the east side of upper Manhattan and at the base of the Fort George escarpment along the Harlem Speedway road cuts. Though there were many titanite specimens recovered, very little has been written about the find and the author relied on specimens in area collections for general descriptions. The titanite occurs as large yellow-green crystals to 40 mm long found in hornblende-rich horizons in the gneiss. The titanite crystals present broad rhombic-shaped flat faces parallel to the hornblende horizon. The tendency for the gneiss to part along the crystal-bearing layer resulted in many large specimens in excess of 40 cm across with many titanite crystals exposed. The abundance of specimens from this find resulted in nearly every local collector being able to obtain one, and they frequently come to the current mineral market when old collections are dispersed.

Titanite var. Sphene from the Harlem Speedway, Manhattan

Titanite var. Sphene from the Harlem Speedway, Manhattan, ex. Hugh Ford, 9 x 4.5 x 2 cm. Steve Nightingale collection.

In the Bronx an occurrence of similar titanite crystals was at the old Williams Bridge locality where Gunn Hill Road crosses the Bronx River. Also in the Bronx large brown titanite crystals, to 40 mm long, were found in the gneiss at 165th Street and Webster Avenue.

Titanite, var. sphene from Williams Bridge, Bronx, NY

Titanite, var. sphene from Williams Bridge, Bronx, NY ex. K. Hollman, 8x7x4 cm NYSM #21471.

Titanite, var. sphene from  165th Street and Webster, Morrisania, the Bronx, NY.

Titanite, var. sphene from 165th Street and Webster, Morrisania, the Bronx, NY., ex. Hauck, 6x4x3 cm. Steve Nightingale collection.

Uvite

Both dravite and uvite tourmalines are found in NYC. Most are generically referred to as brown tourmaline, because exact species identification requires testing and a collector cannot rely on morphology to determine the species. See the entry for dravite for more information.

Vivianite

Beck (1842) reported blue-black vivianite crystals from Harlem filling narrow fractures in gneiss associated with stilbite, feldspar, etc. The detail of Beck's description indicates that he personally collected the species in NYC. Research by Michael Hawkins of the NYSM in the mid-1990s located the Harlem vivianite specimens in the Beck collection at Rutgers University, though a recent search by William Selden, the current Rutgers curator, reported no such specimens.

Wurtzite-2H

A recent addition to the NYC mineral species list is wurtzite-2H. Two elongated tapered 7 mm long wurtzite-2H crystals were discovered on a specimen excavated during the construction of the 63rd Street subway.

Wurtzite-2H from the 63rd Street Subway Tunnel, Manhattan

Wurtzite-2H from the 63rd Street Subway Tunnel, Manhattan, NY 8 x 3.5 x 2.5 cm NYSM #15057

Xenotime-(Y)

William Niven, the mineral dealer, first found xenotime crystals, associated with monazite, in 1888 at 175th Street near 10th (Amsterdam) Avenue, near the western edge of today's High Bridge Park, among excavated rock that had been dumped there from an unknown construction site. In April 1895 the apparent source of the dumped rock was found by Niven at 185th street along the Harlem River, during the construction of the Harlem Speedway. Niven (1888) reported finding several thousand xenotime and monazite crystals from a vein of coarse-grained gray granite running through the local mica schist. Later in 1896, larger xenotime crystals came from a nearby site in a series of three cavities in a pegmatite vein running through mica schist at 171st Street at Fort Washington Avenue. Several crystals exceeding 5 mm long were found with the largest described as 8x8x6 mm "simple symmetrical octahedron composed of the unit pyramid" (Hovey, 1896a). Two matrix specimens of xenotime are in the collection of Harvard University, the largest being 8 mm long. A later find of xenotime crystals in 1912 was discovered at 165th Street and Broadway in Manhattan, near the current site of the Audubon Theater. A set of three individual xenotime crystals from this find are in the Manchester collection of the NYMC. One crystal measures 10 mm across.

Xenotime from 171 Street and Fort Washington Ave, Manhattan, NY

Xenotime from 171 Street and Fort Washington Ave, Manhattan, NY. ex. Gilman Stanton,
5x3.5x2.5 cm. NYSM #v.3221b.

Three xenotime-(Y) crystals from 165th Street and Broadway, Manhattan

Three xenotime-(Y) crystals from 165th Street and Broadway, Manhattan, NY ex. Manchester 7-10 mm NYMC #651.

Gemstones

A wide variety of faceted gemstones have been created from the minerals found in New York City. Manchester (1931) Plate No. 1 illustrates gemstones of heliodor and aquamarine varieties of beryl, spessartine garnet, brown tourmaline (dravite or uvite) and smoky quartz, in addition to gemstones from outside NYC.

Rare color version of Plate No. 1 from Manchester (1931) illustrating faceted gemstones

Rare color version of Plate No. 1 from Manchester (1931) illustrating faceted gemstones from localities in
and around NYC, notably the set of seven aquamarine gemstones from 157th Street and Broadway, Manhattan, NY.

Manchester's best find, in his opinion, was at Broadway at 157th Street where he found a broken gem-grade aquamarine beryl crystal. Since the crystal was broken, he decided to have it faceted and it produced seven gemstones, the largest being 1.5 carats. These are group 6 in Plate No. 1 cited above.

B.B. Chamberlin found an aquamarine beryl crystal in the Manhattanville section (near west 125th Street) that he had faceted into to two 1 carat gemstones that were displayed at the NY Academy of Sciences meeting in November 1895.

In the collection of Steve Nightingale is a set of four faceted almandine garnet gemstones 3-4 mm diameter, originally in the collection of Gilman Stanton, that were cut from rough found at 165th Street at Riverside Drive in Manhattan. Nightingale also has a set of four faceted 4-5 mm diameter gemstones of dravite-uvite brown tourmalines from the Kingsbridge section of Manhattan that were formerly in the NYMC collection.

One of four faceted almandine garnets in a set from 165th Street and Riverside Drive

One of four faceted almandine garnets in a set from 165th Street and Riverside Drive, NYC,
ex. Gilman Stanton, 4 mm diameter round cuts, (0.36 carats) Steve Nightingale collection.

Faceted gemstone of dravite-uvite tourmalines (one of four in a set) from  Kingsbridge, Manhattan

Faceted gemstone of dravite-uvite tourmalines (one of four in a set) from Kingsbridge,
Manhattan, NY.C, ex. NYMC, 5 mm diameter round cut, (0.50 carat) Steve Nightingale collection.

In 1916 a gem-grade garnet crystal measuring 7.6 cm across was found in at Haven Avenue between 178th and 179th Streets in upper Manhattan that was tested and proved to be spessartine. The crystal could not be extracted intact, but came out in fragments that were faceted by Espositor, Varni & Co. into 39 orange-red gemstones totaling 19 carats, the largest weighed 1.37 carats (Manchester and Stanton, 1917).

Recent Collecting

Though many of the mineral specimens used to illustrate this article were collected prior to 1930, it is still possible to collect minerals in New York City. Excavations for buildings or utilities continually expose bedrock. And it is possible to get access to the excavations. During the research of sites for this article the author encountered site geologists and construction workers that were friendly, interested in minerals and willing to provide limited access to closed construction sites.

Today most building excavations no longer use dynamite to blast the rock, they use large pneumatic hammers attached to the arm of an excavator to progressively pry out the underlying bedrock. The excavated material is removed and it is easiest to collect minerals where the rock is being dumped, usually at a location nearby where fill is required. Recent sites using fill from NYC, that were accessible to mineral collectors, were the renovation of Overpeck Park in New Jersey, the ongoing ball field renovation on Randall's Island, and at Trump Place over the west side rail yards along the Hudson River between 59th and 72nd Streets.At the Trump site large quantities of rock were used to bring the grade to the street level and access to the fill was not seriously restricted.

Members of the NYMC collecting at a rock dump excavated for Harlem Ship Canal,

Members of the NYMC collecting at a rock dump excavated for Harlem Ship Canal, 1887 Photo by J. Rosch

Dumped rock from older excavations can be found at water's edge throughout all five boroughs where large rock was used as fill, breakwaters, and tidal bulkheads. Randall's Island and Ward's Island in the East River are now a single island because the channel between them were filled with rock blasted from Manhattan Island. The shoreline around northern Manhattan Island was expanded with fill from the excavation of the Harlem Ship Canal and still provides collecting opportunities.

Michael Walter, a lifetime resident of NYC, collected clusters of transparent quartz crystals from a narrow vein in the Manhattan schist from an exposure near 104th Street in Central Park. Collecting in Central Park is probably against the park rules, but park employees encounter the activity so infrequently that they are not really sure how to react. Most times they just ask you to leave. There is a rock dump within Central Park on the east side north of the 102nd Street entrance to the Park Drive where a collector can collect discreetly. This is where excavated rock from park projects is stockpiled for future use, and the park employees rarely visit the area.

In 1991 the Harlem Meer, a small pond in the northeast corner of Central Park in Manhattan, was being renovated and a wide variety of rock was exposed. The author collected radiating red stilbite and metallic pyrite crystals in a calcite filled vein running through the Manhattan Schists as well as a large schorl crystal from a pegmatite intrusion.

The NYMC rarely has opportunities to collect in building sites. An optimistic NYMC member, Kevan Brown, inquired at a building site in midtown and miraculously obtained permission from the Tishman Speyer site manager for a club field trip on January 3rd, 1998. Many club members had an opportunity to collect in the exposed schist where small almandine garnets and black schorl tourmalines were collected.

An easily accessible collecting site is on Staten Island is where an exit was cut on the south side of Interstate 278 through the serpentine. But the exit was never used, leaving a large exposure open to collecting accessible from the dead end off Schmidt Lane. A wide variety of serpentine and secondary minerals are collectible here and it is the site of frequent club field trips.

Rock excavated during the construction of the Richmond Aqueduct in the 1960s was dumped at the end of Forest Avenue on Staten Island and is still accessible at the west end of Forest Ave. near the Home Depot. This contains rocks from the New York City group (gneiss, schist, marble, and pegmatite) and the associated minerals. Almandine garnet, orthoclase, schorl, muscovite and apatite have been found in recent years.

Recently excavations at a Con Edison tunnel south of the United Nations produced some large almandine garnet crystals. These curiosities were gathered by the tunnel workers and local residents, one of whom brought it to the attention of mineral dealer Dudley Blauwet who passed the information to the author. Unfortunately the author was too late to gather specimens. But this is an example of an underlying principle to mineral collecting: even ordinary people will recognize extraordinary mineral occurrences and will preserve specimens, if only as a curiosity.

In spite of the dense urban environment, it is still possible to collect mineral specimens within the boundaries of NYC. It takes perseverance and boldness, but New Yorkers lack neither.

List of Confirmed Mineral Species Found in New York City

In 1825 Robinson listed 35 mineral species from NYC. By 1865 Bailey reported 45 mineral species. Chamberlin (1888) increased the list to 82 mineral species and the last major survey (Manchester, 1931) lists 102 species. The current list below has 132 valid mineral species from New York City. Two species not listed here were reported in early references but cannot be verified and are considered doubtful: elbaite and triphylite.

Actinolite
Albite
Allanite-(Ce)
Allophane
Almandine
Alunite
Analcime
Ancylite-(Ce)
Andradite
Anhydrite
Ankerite
Annite
Anthophyllite
Antigorite
Apophyllite-(KF)
Aragonite
Arsenopyrite
Artinite
Augite
Autunite
Barite
Beryl
Annite
Bornite
Bournonite
Brucite
Calcioancylite-(Ce)
Calcite
Chabazite-Ca
Chabazite-K
Chalcopyrite
Chamosite
Chromite
Chrysoberyl
Chondrodite
Clinochlore
Clinochrysotile
Columbite-(Fe)
Copper
Cordierite
Corundum
Cummingtonite
Cuprite
Datolite
Diopside
Dolomite
Dravite
Dumortierite
Enstatite
Epidote
Epsomite
Ferrimolybdite
Ferrogedrite
Ferrohornblende
Fluocerite-(Ce)
Fluorapatite
Fluorite
Forsterite
Galena
Goethite
Gold
Graphite
Grossular
Gypsum
Harmotome
Hematite
Heulandite-Ca
Hydromagnesite
Ilmenite
Kalinite
Kaolinite
Kyanite
Laumontite
Lizardite
Magnesiochromite
Magnesiocummingtonite
Magnesite
Magnetite
Malachite
Manasseite
Marcasite
Melanterite
Mesolite
Microcline
Microlite
Millerite
Molybdenite
Molybdite
Monazite-(Ce)
Muscovite
Natrolite
Nepheline
Opal
Orthoclase
Pectolite
Phlogopite
Prehnite
Pyrite
Pyroaurite
Pyrochlore
Pyrolusite
Pyrophyllite
Pyrrhotite
Quartz
Rutile
Schorl
Sepiolite
Siderite
Sillimanite
Spessartine
Sphalerite
Spinel
Staurolite
Stichtite
Stilbite-Ca
Talc
Thomsonite-Ca
Titanite
Topaz
Torbernite
Tremolite
Uraninite
Uranophane
Uvanite
Uvite
Vermiculite
Vesuvianite
Vivianite
Wollastonite
Wurtzite-2h
Xenotime-(Y)
Zircon

Miscellaneous
Garnierite = Nepouite-Pecoraite- Willemseite
Gummite = Becquerelite + Fourmarierite
Psilomelane = Romanechite-Hollandite-Cryptomelane-Birnessite
Scapolite = Meionite or Marialite

Largest Mineral Crystals from New York City on Record

Species Size Locality
Actinolite 7 cm Mott Haven Section Of The Bronx
Albite 6 cm
Allanite-(Ce) 25 mm Brooklyn-Battery Tunnel
Almandine 23 cm 185th Street Along The Harlem River, Manhattan
Almandine (Subway Garnet) 15 cm West Thirty-Fifth Street, Between Broadway And Seventh Avenue, Manhattan
Ancylite-(Ce) 1 mm College Point, Queens
Anthophyllite 10 mm 59th Street And 11th Avenue, Manhattan
Apophyllite-(KF) 18 mm Water Tunnel No. 3 Queens
Aragonite 5 mm South Side Of I-278 On Staten Island
Artinite 25 mm Staten Island Serpentine
Beryl 25 cm 65th Street And Broadway, Manhattan
Calcite 70 mm 174th Street And Grand Concourse In The Bronx
Chabazite 18 mm 45th Street At 2nd Avenue, Manhattan
Chrysoberyl 55+ mm (reconstructed) 93rd & Riverside Drive, Manhattan
22 mm 122nd Street And Morningside Avenue
Clinochlore 5-15 mm 63rd Street Subway, Manhattan
Columbite-(Fe) 12 mm "Manhattan Island"
9 mm 185th Street At The Harlem River, Manhattan
Diopside 12 cm Kingsbridge area, Manhattan
Dravite-Uvite 7 cm Kingsbridge area, Manhattan
Epidote 38 mm 59th Street Between Avenue Of The Americas And 7th Avenues, Manhattan
36 mm Fort George, In Upper Manhattan
Fluorapatite 15 cm 122nd Street Near Riverside Drive, Manhattan
Fluorite 6 mm Basted During The Excavation At Hell's Gate In The East River
5 mm At 168th Street And The Harlem River, Manhattan
Galena 4 mm 92nd Street And Lexington Avenue, Manhattan
Graphite 5 mm "New York County"
Harmotome 12 mm 92nd To 96th Streets And Lexington Avenue, Manhattan
Heulandite-Ca 4 mm Water Tunnel No. 2 And 3 Under Queens.
Hydromagnesite 1 mm Staten Island Serpentine
Ilmenite 50 mm 56th Street And Broadway
Kyanite 15 cm 42nd Street And Park Avenue, Near The Current Grand Central Station, Manhattan
Laumontite 10 mm Harold Avenue (An Obsolete Street Name) In Long Island City, Queens
Magnetite 35 mm 176th Street And Broadway, Manhattan
Microcline 12 cm Fort George Section Of Upper Manhattan
Monazite-(Ce) 13.5 mm 171st Street And Fort Washington Avenue, Manhattan
Muscovite 38 cm Manhattan Schists And Gneisses
Orthoclase 15 cm "Manhattan"
15 cm 15 cm 96th Street Near 3rd Avenue, Manhattan
Pyrite 25 mm St. Ann's Avenue And 145th Street In The Bronx.
25 mm Brooklyn-Battery Tunnel
18 mm Kingsbridge area, Manhattan
Quartz 120 mm Westchester Avenue In The Bronx
55 mm 176th Street At 10th Avenue, Manhattan
Rutile 54 mm 218th Street And Broadway
Schorl 30.5 cm 157th Street Near Fort Washington Avenue, Manhattan
24 cm 171st Street At Fort Washington, Manhattan
Spessartine 10 cm Haven Avenue And 179th Street Under The Eastern End Of The George Washington Bridge, Manhattan
Stilbite-Ca 10 mm 63rd Street Subway Excavated Rock Dumped In College Point, Queens
Titanite 40 mm Fort George Escarpment Along The Harlem Speedway, Manhattan
40 mm 165th Street And Webster Avenue In The Bronx
Wurtzite-2H 7 mm 63rd Street Subway Excavated Rock Dumped In College Point, Queens
Xenotime-(Y) 12 mm 171st St. And Ft. Washington, Manhattan
10 mm 165th Street And Broadway, Manhattan
Gemstones
Aquamarine, Variety Of Beryl 1.5 carats Broadway At 157th Street, Manhattan
1.0 carat Manhattanville Section (Near West 125th Street), Manhattan
Almandine Garnet 4 mm 165th Street At Riverside Drive, Manhattan
Spessartine Garnet 1.37 carats Haven Avenue Between 178th And 179th Streets In Upper Manhattan

Acknowledgements

I extend my personal gratitude to the many individuals that contributed to this article with their assistance, corrections, and access to collections. Special thanks to George Harlow and Jamie Newman of the AMNH, Anna Schumate and Mitch Portnoy of the NYMC, Michael Hawkins and Marian Lupulescu of the NYSM, Carl Francis of Harvard University, Ed Johnson of the Staten Island Institute of Arts and Sciences, William Selden of the Rutgers Museum. Extra thanks to Dr. Charles Merguerian of Hofstra University who distilled the complex geology of NYC down to seven paragraphs. I am indebted to Michael Hawkins, Ed Johnson and especially Steven Chamberlain who thoroughly reviewed the manuscript and corrected my crude attempts at writing coherent text. Lastly I express my gratitude to the many private collectors that made their mineral specimens and photographs available including: Bob Allen, Bob Batic, George Elling, Irving Horowitz, Saul Krotki, David Miller, Steve Nightingale, Brad Plotkin, Dietmar Stitz, Michael Walter, Ted Zirnite. And thanks to the many others that responded to my questions and guided me through this immense subject.

References

There is an abundance of references on the geology and minerals of New York City. Every reference could not be provided in the limited space of this publication. The references included here are limited to those that have original content that adds to our understanding and history of NYC mineralogy and geology.

Out of the many references on NYC mineralogy, three stand out in particular. The first by B.B. Chamberlin appeared in Transactions of the New York Academy of Sciences (1888) was an exhaustive catalog of minerals and localities in Manhattan that is unmatched in it's scope compared to all other publications of the time. It describes the minerals in the Chamberlin collection that formed the core of the NYMC collection at the AMNH. The other two references are books by James G. Manchester: Minerals of Broadway in 1912 and Minerals of New York City and It's Environs in 1931 build upon Chamberlin's previous work and covers the new mineral finds to date during the Manhattan building boom. The former being limited to the minerals found along Broadway, a north-south avenue running the entire length of Manhattan Island. The latter describes the minerals from within a 50 mile radius of NYC and has descriptions of the important finds within NYC along with photos of minerals and field trips of the NYMC. (Book collectors should take note that there are two versions of Minerals of New York City and It's Environs, the common edition having a black-and-white halftone reproduction opposite the title page. A rarer edition has a hand-colored photograph of the same image tipped in.)

Akerly, S. (1814) On the Geology and Mineralogy of the Island of New-York. The American Mineralogical Journal, 1, 191-198.

Anonymous (1886) Mineralogical Club of the New York Academy of Science. Exchanger's Monthly, New York, 2 #11.

Anonymous (1888) Recent Mineral Discoveries in New York City. Exchanger's Monthly, New York, 3, 4.

Anonymous (1888) To Go To The Museum (Chamberlin's Collection). New York Times, July 12, 1888, New York.

Anonymous (1888) The Mineralogical Club will Honor B.B. Chamberlin's Memory. New York Times, October 28, 1888, New York.

Anonymous (1889) Rocks of Manhattan Island. New York Times, March 1, 1889, New York.

Anonymous (1889) A Great Variety of Specimens Collected by Local Geologists. New York Times, May 20th, 1889, New York.

Anonymous (1896) Xenotime Crystals on Manhattan Island. The Mineral Collector, New York, 2, 123-124.

Anonymous (1908) New York City Minerals. The Mineral Collector, New York, 15, 87.

Anonymous (1908) Garnets Dug up in the Subway. The Mineral Collector, New York, 15, 64.

Anonymous (1964) World News on Mineral Occurrences. Rocks and Minerals, Peekskill, 39, 142-150.

Anonymous (1973) Mineral Collecting in New York City. Rocks and Minerals, Peekskill, 48, 540-541.

Bailey, S.C.H. (1865) On the Minerals of New York Island. Lyceum of Natural History of New York, Annals, New York, 8, 185-192.

Baskerville, Charles A. (1992) Bedrock and Engineering Geologic Maps of Bronx County and Parts of New York and Queens Counties, New York. U.S. Geological Survey, Miscellaneous Investigations Series Map I-2003, Washington.

Baskerville, Charles A. (1994) Bedrock and Engineering Geologic Maps of New York County and Parts of Kings and Queens Counties, New York, and Parts of Bergen and Hudson Counties, New Jersey. U.S. Geological Survey, Miscellaneous Investigations Series Map I-2006, Washington.

Beck, Lewis C. (1842) Mineralogy of New-York. White and Visscher, Albany.

Beck, Lewis C. (1845) Mineralogy of New York. American Journal of Science, Series 1, 46, 25-37.

Berkey, Charles P. (1908) Limestones Interbedded with the Fordham Gneiss in New York City (Abstract). Science, New York, 28, 936.

Betts, John H. (1997) Accounts of the Discovery of the Kunz Garnet. New York Mineralogical Club Newsletter, New York, 111 #12, 9.

Betts, John H. (1998) Manhattan Mineral Collecting. Mineral News, Coeur d'Alene, ID, 14 #1, 1, 6-8.

Braun, Frederick (1896) On Some Minerals from New York City. Transactions of the New York Academy of Sciences, New York, 16, 44.

Britton, Nathaniel L. (1881) Geology of Richmond County, New York. Transactions of the New York Academy of Sciences, New York, 2, 161-182.

Bruce, Archibald (1814a) Description of some of the combinations of titanium occurring within the United States. American Mineralogical Journal, New York, 1, 233-243, plate II.

Bruce, Archibald (1814b) White Pyroxene from New York Island. American Mineralogical Journal, New York, 1, 266.

Chamberlin, Benjamin B. (1883a) Fall Work in Local Mineralogy. Transactions of the New York Academy of Sciences, New York, 2, 48-50.

Chamberlin, Benjamin B. (1883b) The Minerals of the Weehauken tunnel [New Jersey]. Transactions of the New York Academy of Sciences, New York, 2, 88-90.

Chamberlin, Benjamin B. (1886a) Minerals of Harlem and vicinity (New York City). Transactions of the New York Academy of Sciences, New York, 5, 74-77.

Chamberlin, Benjamin B. (1886b) Minerals of Staten Island New York. New York Academy of Sciences Transactions, New York, 5, 227-230.

Chamberlin, Benjamin B. (1888) The Minerals of New York County, including a list complete to date. Transactions of the New York Academy of Sciences, New York, 7, 211-235.

Conklin, Lawrence H. (1997) Kingsbridge, An Early Quarrying District on Manhattan Island. Mineralogical Record, Tucson, 28, 457-473.

Cozzens, Issachar, Jr. (1843) A Geological History of Manhattan or New York Island. W. E. Dean, New York.

Dana, Edward S. (1911) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana 1837-1868; Descriptive Mineralogy, 6th Edition. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, New York.

Darton, Nelson H. (1883) Mineralogical Localities in and Around New York City, and Minerals Occurring Therein. Scientific American Supplement, New York, 14, 5492, 5566, 5796-5797.

DeVito, Fred (1969) Eastern Localities-Mineral of New York City. Rocks and Minerals, Peekskill, 44, 138.

Diller, J.S. and Whitfield, J.E. (1889) Dumortierite from Harlem, New York and from Arizona. American Journal of Science, New Haven, 37, 216-219.

Eckel, Edwin C. (1899) Intrusives in the Inwood Limestone of Manhattan Island, New York. The American Geologist, February, 1899, 23, 122-124.

Edwards, Arthur M. (1896a) Chondrodite on New York Island. The Mineral Collector, New York, 3, 48.

Edwards, Arthur M. (1896b) On the Formation of Hematite on Staten Island, New York. The Mineral Collector, New York, 3, 89.

Fettke, Charles R. (1912) Limonite Deposits of Staten Island, New York. School of Mines Quarterly, Columbia University, New York, 33, 382-391.

Fettke, Charles R. (1914) Manhattan Schist of Southeastern New York State and it's Associated Igneous Rocks. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, New York, 23, 193-260.

Fitton, Robert A. (1995) Letter to the Editor. Matrix, Dillsburg, PA, 4 #2, 65.

Fluhr, Thomas W. (1941) The Geology of the Lincoln Tunnel. Rocks and Minerals, Peekskill, 16, 115-119, 156-160, 195-198235-239.

Fluhr, Thomas W. (1950) Geology of the Brooklyn-Battery Tunnel. Rocks and Minerals, Peekskill, 25, 250-254.

Ford, William E. (1903) On the Composition of Dumortierite (from New York City). American Journal of Science, New Haven, 14, 426-430.

Friedrich, James J. (1886) Notes on Local Mineralogy. Transactions of the New York Academy of Sciences, New York, 5, 121.

Friedrich, James J. (1887) Notes on Local Mineralogy. Transactions of the New York Academy of Sciences, New York, 6, 130.

Friedrich, James J. (1889) Resume of Lithology of Manhattan Island. Transactions of the New York Academy of Sciences, New York, 8, 53.

Frondel, Clifford (1936) Oriented Inclusions of Tourmaline in Muscovite (including a study of 109 examples from New York City). American Mineralogist, Menasha, 21, 777-799.

Gale, L.D. (1839) Report on the Geology of New York County. New York Geological Survey, Albany, 3rd Annual Report, 177-199.

Gratacap, Louis P. (1887) Nature and Origin of Staten Island Serpentine. Proceedings of the Natural Science Association of Staten Island, New York, 1, 55.

Gratacap, Louis P. (1899) Notes on Limonite Beds on Ocean Terrace, Staten Island. Proceedings of the Natural Science Association of Staten Island, New York, 7, 28-29.

Gratacap, Louis P. (1909) Geology of the City of New York, 3rd edition. Henry Holt & Co., New York.

Gratacap, Louis P. (1912) A Popular Guide to Minerals. D. Van Nostrand Co., New York, 145.

Hawkins, Alfred C. (1945) Collecting Under Armed Guard. Rocks and Minerals, Rocks and Peekskill, 20, 64-67.

Hidden, William E. (1887) Minerals from Fort George, New York City. Transactions of the New York Academy of Sciences, New York, 7, 48-49.

Hidden, William E. (1888) Xenotime from New York City. American Journal of Science, New Haven, 36, 380.

Hollick, Charles A. (1889) Triassic Outcrops at Mariner's Harbor, Staten Island, New York. Proceedings of the Natural Science Association of Staten Island, New York, 2, 9-10.

Hollick, Charles A. (1889-1926) [various articles on the clays, fossils, and serpentine in nearly every volume]. Proceedings of the Natural Science Association of Staten Island, New York, 1-27.

Hovey, Edmund O. (1896a) Notes on Some Specimens of Minerals from Washington Heights N.Y. City. The Mineral Collector, New York, 2, 175.

Hovey, Edmund O. (1896b) Rare Minerals from New York City, Abstract. Science, New Series, New York, 3, 214.

Hovey, Edmund O. (1906a) The Collections Illustrating the Rocks and Minerals of Manhattan Island. American Museum Journal (AMNH), New York, 6, 6-12.

Hovey, Edmund O. (1906b) The collections illustrating the rocks and minerals of Manhattan. The American Museum Journal, New York, 6, 6-12.

Jackson, Charles T. (1865) Iron Ore from Staten Island, New York. Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History, Boston, 10, 72.

Jackson, Kenneth T., editor (1991) The Encyclopedia of New York City. Yale University Press, New Haven.

Julien, Alexis A. (1883) The decay of Building Stones in New York City. Transactions of the New York Academy of Sciences, New York, 2, 67-79.

Kemp, James F. (1887) The Geology of Manhattan Island. Transactions of the New York Academy of Sciences, New York, 7, 49-34.

Kerr, Paul F. (1930) Kaolinite from a Brooklyn Subway Tunnel. American Mineralogist, Philadelphia, 15, 144-154.

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